Intelligence

Physiology

Intelligence Psychophysiology

Physiological psychology regards intelligence as a biological entity and its individual differences, primarily, as a result of physiological impact and, secondarily, as consequences of hereditary factors.

Three Kinds of Intelligence

The most coherent position in theoretical perspective was held by a well-known English psychologist H. Eysenck. He distinguished three kinds of intelligence: biological, psychometric, and social. The first type is a genetically determined biological base of cognitive performance and all its individual differences. Biological intelligence emerges on the basis of neurophysiologic and biochemical factors and is directly related to cerebral cortex.

Psychometric intelligence is measured by intelligence tests and depends both on biological intelligence and sociocultural factors.

Social intelligence represents intellectual abilities we use in everyday life. It depends on psychometric intelligence, personal features, education, and socioeconomic status.

Speed, Accuracy of Data Processing, and Intelligence

According to some studies, individual differences in performance of intelligence tests are partially based on person’s speed of information processing regardless their knowledge and skills. Thus, psychic speed or speed of mental activity helps to explain the reason of differences in people’s cognitive activity and intellectual measures.

A number of researches were conducted in order to study the correlation between IQ and brain reaction to external events. Individual differences are based on differences in synaptic transmission and development of memory traces. Supposedly, information processing on the synapse level can be accompanied by some errors. The more errors, the lower is the IQ.

Brain Structure Features and Giftedness

There is no doubt that psyche is the whole brain’s feature, however, the brain’s structure and functions are highly specialized. This brings up the question whether intellectual giftedness influences brain morphology in any way.

Study of outstanding people’s brain reveals a connection between their giftedness and brain morphology. First of all, it shows in the size of neurons in receptive fields of cortex. For example, the 4th receptive layer of eminent musician’s acoustic cortex or talented artist’s visual cortex where the sensory organs’ nerve tracts lead to is twice as thick as an average person’s receptive layer.

Analysis of outstanding physicist’s, Albert Einstein’s, brain proved that receptive layer of cortex was twice as thick as the average cortex exactly where the maximal changes had been expected (associative fields in the left hemisphere.) Besides, the number of glial cells, which maintained the augmented neurons’ metabolism, was sufficiently exceeding the average norm. It is significant that the research of other areas of Einstein’s brain didn’t reveal any particular differences.

Ageing and Intelligence

Ageing is accompanied with regressive changes in the brain. At the same time it was proved that many famous people’s brain’s weight remained almost the same to the great age combined with high mental capacity and intellectual work. Apparently, intensive intellectual labor is obligatory to maintain your brain in your later years.

Intelligence Development Risks

Newborn’s brain makes up 12% of the whole body weight (adult’s brain makes up 2.5%), which means that low birth weight infants have problems with brain maturation. Brain growth is mainly maintained by protein synthesis. An infant’s protein hunger has severe effects, especially in the early days. Low birth weight has major impact on nonverbal intelligence and spatial aptitude, which are considered the basis of human mental activity.

Food and Brain

What’s going on in the brain? Over 100 billion neurons, each connected with another 10000, are constantly working there. Each moment they exchange information simultaneously and give millions of signals. To maintain this complex mechanism little grey cells need a lot of energy. They consume about 20% of energy that we get from food.

Thus, the food we eat has a crucial impact on our brainwork.

Food and Brain

 

What’s going on in the brain? Over 100 billion neurons, each connected with another 10000, are constantly working there. Each moment they exchange information simultaneously and give millions of signals. To maintain this complex mechanism little grey cells need a lot of energy. They consume about 20% of energy that we get from food.

Thus, the food we eat has a crucial impact on our brainwork.

Interhemispheric Relations and Artistic Abilities

 

Performance features of each hemisphere and their input into intellectual and behavioral activity have been systematized and generalized. The left hemisphere is responsible for analytic and sign-oriented learning strategy; right hemisphere is in charge or synthetic and image-oriented strategy.

However, the brain works as a whole and, along with hemisphere specialization, their integration or s takes place in cognitive activity. Evidently, the process of bilateral interaction is carried out better or worse, depending on a person. It is expected that a right-handed person would be more apt, if he uses his other hemisphere more often. Vice versa, if a left-handed person uses his left hemisphere, he can improve his skills and intelligence level.

Iodine’s Role in Brainwork

Food plays an important part in brainwork activation and brain development. For example, lack of iodine causes lack of thyroid hormones. This hormone is essential for teenagers brain development and grown-ups intelligence and working efficiency.

Foods rich in iodine: sea cabbage, sea fish, persimmon, dates, chokeberry, prunes, cranberries, carrots, cabbages, cucumbers, tomatoes, garlic, beets. However, this food won’t provide the necessary intake of iodine even if you eat them constantly, because an adult person needs 200 milligrams of iodine every day! So what’s to be done? Include iodized salt into your daily ration! Use it in cooking and put it into your saltcellar. All developed countries have long switched to iodized salt.

Intellectual menu

  • Carrots simplify the process of learning due to stimulating the brain’s metabolic activity. Eat some grated carrot dressed with vegetable oil before doing mental action.
  • Concentration: Bulb onions relieve mental strain and fatigue, stimulate hemodilution and promote oxygenic supply. Recommended daily intake: at least half an onion.
  • Nuts are especially good, if you are about to do an intellectual “marathon” (presentations, conferences, exams). It strengthens your nervous system and stimulates your brain.
  • Grind away both at your studies and cabbage. Cabbage has a soothing effect. Eat a cabbage salad before your exam to calm down and proceed to your preparations.
  • Lemons freshen you up and make learning easier due to a large dose of vitamin C. Try drinking a glass of lemon juice before your studies.
  • To brighten up eat bananas — they contain serotonin, which makes your brain think “I’m happy!”